In the last decade, systemic treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer has undergone an unprecedented change because of new targeted therapies and the introduction of immunotherapy. Advances in the understanding of lung cancer biology have led to the discovery of several oncogenic driver genes and the development of drugs that target driver mutations, according to the strategy of ‘personalised therapy’. The bestknown alterations are epidermal growth factor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, but the improvement in genomic technologies and the continuous research in this area have led to the identification of new druggable targets. This is a comprehensive overview focused on the development of targeted therapies and their mechanisms of action.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2018;12(5):223–232)