In recent years, the outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved thanks to the development of targeted therapies. Currently, the introduction of immunotherapy for lung cancer patients offers new treatment opportunities. The pathologist is now asked to provide the most accurate possible diagnosis in association with theranostic information in order to provide the best therapeutic option. For immunotherapy, programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) status is, at the present, the required biomarker for patient stratification, at least in first line treatment. Different international societies have already underlined the importance of guidelines for managing samples of non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC. With the goal of adapting these international recommendations to the Belgian landscape, Belgian guidelines were published in 2016. This update integrates immunotherapy into the previously published guidelines.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2018;12(5):233–238)